Direct is a health information exchange framework based on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and email. Public x509 certificates must be discoverable for Direct to work properly. Currently Direct uses both DNS and LDAP for this purpose. This blog post outlines a proposal for a new RESTful method of Direct certificate discovery.

The Direct Applicability statement already provides two methods to discover certificates: DNS, and LDAP. Since DNS and LDAP are easy enough to query, why do we need a third method? In a word, simplicity. If the use of a technology is going to be mandated by the government, as in the case of Direct via Meaningful Use, shouldn’t it be simple, inexpensive, and as friction-less as possible? We’re living in a web world so why not leverage this commodity. I’ll be the first to admit that it can be hard to reduce complexity by adding requirements. We should only add requirements if they are needed. I’d like outline some of the issues with the DNS and LDAP approaches.

Issues Serving Direct Certificates via DNS and LDAP

1. DNS does not work on many large networks. On many networks including Comcast, Time Warner, and others, looking up a Direct certificate via DNS is not possible because these networks do not allow large DNS lookups. The certificates are too large and are blocked on these networks.

2. No large hosting provider (including Amazon, GoDaddy, Yahoo, DreamHost, Google, and others) provide support for certificate “CERT-type” records. Hosting your own DNS server is complicated and burdensome. Most organizations leave this to their hosting provider, however, if you want to serve certificates for Direct via DNS you have no choice but to host your own DNS server or contract out to a third party service.

3. Some security-minded people may frown on the idea of anonymous access to an LDAP server, especially if it also contains other resources with restricted access. In addition, LDAP is also and burdensome to setup under the Linux/Unix.

The first item in the list is going to cause a lot of problems. See this for yourself using the command-line tool “dig”. (You could also use “nslookup”). Try typing the following:

> dig CERT

Depending on your network, you may or may not get a response. For example, on Time Warner or Comcast you might get this instead of the certificate.

;; Truncated, retrying in TCP mode.

; <<>> DiG 9.8.1-P1 <<>> CERT
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: REFUSED, id: 3004
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 0, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0


;; Query time: 1 msec
;; WHEN: Thu Aug 22 13:45:31 2013
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 43

If you try the same command on another network (from an Amazon EC2 instance for example), you will get the certificate. DNS is working as expected but our network is blocking it. Since many providers throughout the United States use Time Warner, Comcast, and others as Internet Service Providers (ISPs), this presents a problem. If an organization wants to host Direct and lookup certificates via DNS, then their network could not.

It may require someone, such as the US government, to require all major ISPs to change their network configuration to support Direct (i.e. large DNS responses).

I assume that is possible and has already happened in many cases, but as I said before, it’s a web world. There’s got to be a better way! Below is my proposal for serving Direct certificates in a simple RESTFul fashion. I call it RCD for “RESTFul Certificate Discovery”. Here are the details:

RESTFul Certificate Discovery

RCD Syntax


                              |-- Email or Domain part --|

RCD Protocol Specification

RCD works by ensuring the URL is predictable. The RCD service MUST operate on a sub-domain named “rcd” on “your-domain”. The “your-domain” in the email/domain part MUST match in the email part. This ensures the system remains distributed among organizations just like DNS. The RCD service ALWAYS returns the public certificate in “.pem” (Privacy Enhanced Mail) format and ALWAYS with an HTTP status code of 200. If the certificate is not found or does not exist then RCD response SHALL ALWAYS return some HTTP response code other than 200 (e.g. 404, 4xx, 5xx). RCD SHALL ALWAYS operate over HTTP on port 80 or port 443 for HTTPS. A RCD client MUST ALWAYS check the HTTPS URL first and then the corresponding HTTP URL. How certificates get into RCD is explicitly left undefined and is left to the implementer.

RCD Example:

RCD is just an HTTP GET request to the URL “”

Here is another domain-bound example.

The RCD service responds with the .pem formatted certificate file or a non-200 HTTP status (404, 400 etc.).

That’s it. That’s the entire specification. New approaches like RCD are specifically allowed in the current Direct spec: “Direct Project solutions MAY obtain digital certificates through some other out-of-band and thus manual means”.

Discover a Certificate via RCD

What’s this look like in action?. We will use a web client called “wget” that is already installed on Mac and most Linux flavors. You could also use a web browser, curl, or any number of web clients.

> wget
> cat
...removed for brevity...

We use “wget” to fetch the certificate at the predictable URL. Then we use “cat” to display the contents of the file that was downloaded.

Hosting RCD

So we see how simple RCD is to query, but what about hosting? This is really the best part to this approach – it really couldn’t be easier. Here’s why:

1. RCD can be implemented with just about any web server (Apache, Microsoft IIS, NGINX, etc).

2. RCD is simple enough to be implemented within a content delivery network (CDN) such as Amazon S3 or Rackspace Cloud Files. Take Amazon S3 for example. S3 Storage is inexpensive and redundant. What this means is that even a fairly hefty deployment would likely only run pennies a month or few dollars per year. Setup is simple because all you need to do is place your files in a sub-directory called “read” and you’re done. No code is necessary to implement this protocol. It’s just a static file at a predictable URL.

3. RCD does not break on some networks as described above in “Issues serving Direct certificates via DNS and LDAP”.

Technical Note: To make RCD work with S3, you need to setup a “vanity URL” on the S3 bucket and create a CNAME within your DNS provider’s (e.g. GoDaddy, Yahoo, etc.) configuration. You will need the authority to make changes to DNS for the domain.

Drawbacks, Conclusions, and Next Steps

The key drawback to this approach is that it requires existing Direct implementations to add the functionality to query for certificates in this way. I’d estimate this would require about 50 lines of code in Java and would be very straightforward. Another drawback is that there isn’t a standard RFC to point to when it comes to REST/RESTFul approaches. That being said RESTful approaches are usually much easier to use and this is why they have largely supplanted more complicated SOAP services.

In my humble opinion, the juice is worth the squeeze. RCD will result in a solution that is orders of magnitude simpler and more cost effective than current options. I am writing this blog post as an open letter to the Direct community hoping that this approach will receive consideration. Thoughts? Opinions? Suggestions?